Brolga: large Australian bird of the crane family, sometimes known as the “native companion”.

5. Olympic games were held in Melbourne in 1956.

5. Wintergarden?

8. Hatter: mad as a hatter?

9. Bullocky: bullock driver

11. Madame Tussaud’s waxworks, London

12. Burke and Hare: The Burke and Hare murders (also known as the West Port murders) were serial murders perpetrated in Edinburgh, Scotland, from November 1827 to 31 October 1828. The killings were attributed to Irish immigrants William Burke and William Hare, who sold the corpses of their 17 victims to provide material for dissection.

13. Bit of a dag: Australian colloquialism; eccentric; dags are dried faeces dangling from the rear of sheep

15. Golden Syrup: Invented in 1883 by Scottish businessman Abram Lyle, when he discovered that a byproduct of the sugar cane refined at his factory in Plaistow, east London, could be made into a delicious spread and sweetener for cooking. First sold to Lyle's employees and local customers in wooden casks, the iconic green and gold tins that Lyle's golden syrup is sold in today were introduced in 1885. The tin bears a picture of the rotting carcass of a lion with a swarm of bees, and the slogan "Out of the strong came forth sweetness". This is a reference to the story in chapter 14 of the Book of Judges in which Samson was traveling to the land of the Philistines in search of a wife. During the journey he killed a lion, and when he passed the same spot on his return he noticed that a swarm of bees had formed a comb of honey in the carcass. Samson later turned this into a riddle at a wedding: "Out of the eater came forth meat and out of the strong came forth sweetness". (Judges 14: 14; Wikipedia)


18.  Peutre: French for Pewter

 Perdita: Latin for “lost one”

19. Blue Room: possibly an allusion to the blue drawing room at Chatsworth?

26. Phar Lap: champion Australian race horse.

28. Shyster: crook; con-man

30. “Pigs arse”: Australian term of derision

32. Nellie Melba: famous Australian singer

33. Sackbut: musical instrument precursor of trombone.

Psaltery: Stringed instrument of the harp or zither family. The psaltery of ancient Greece (Epigonion) dates from at least 2800 BC when it was a harp-like instrument.

Virginal: keyboard instrument of the harpsichord family


This seems to be an allusion to Daniel 3: 10


Thou, O king, hast made a decree, that every man that shall hear the sound of the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, and dulcimer, and all kinds of musick, shall fall down and worship the golden image…


34. Allegro suffiato con succhiato: Sufficiently fast with sucking? (Italian)


44. Crepe de chine: (French: “crepe of China”), light and fine plainwoven dress fabric produced either with all-silk warp and weft or else with a silk warp and hard-spun worsted weft. (Online Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Fagoting: embroidery in which threads are tied in bundles




46. Hunt the thimble: also known as Hide the Thimble is a party game in which all but one partygoer leaves the room. The person remaining in the room hides a thimble, or other small object, somewhere in the room. When everyone comes back in, they must locate the hidden object.

Drop the hanky: Players form a circle and stand facing each other. One player is chosen to be "it" by drawing straws or guessing a number. The child who is "it " holds a handkerchief or a piece of cloth and begins running around the outside of the circle. The "it" player eventually drops the hanky behind one of the others, whereupon he will take off running as fast as he can. The child behind whom the hanky was dropped must pick it up and run after the "it" child to try to catch him. The "it" child's goal is to run completely around the circle and get back to the open space before the child with the hanky does. Players watch for the child with the hanky to catch the "it" child; if she does so, the "it" child must be "it" again, and try once more to get a spot in the circle. The game can be played for long as the children remain interested.

Oranges and lemons: The song is used in a children's singing game with the same name, in which the players file, in pairs, through an arch made by two of the players (made by having the players face each other, raise their arms over their head, and clasp their partners' hands). The challenge comes during the final lines:

Here comes a candle to light you to bed.

Here comes a chopper to chop off your head.

(Chip chop, chip chop, the last man's dead.)

On the last word, the children forming the arch drop their arms to catch the pair of children currently passing through, who are then "out" and must form another arch next to the existing one. In this way, the series of arches becomes a steadily lengthening tunnel through which each set of two players have to run faster and faster to escape in.

Happy families: a traditional card game played in the UK, usually with a specially made set of picture cards, featuring illustrations of fictional families of four, most often based on occupation types. The object of the game is to collect complete families. The player whose turn it is asks another player for a specific card from the same family as a card that the player already has. If the asked player has the card, he gives it to the requester and the requester can then ask for any player for another card. If the asked player does not have the card, it becomes his turn and he asks another player for a specific card. Play continues in this way until no families are separated among different players. The player with the most cards wins The game can be adapted for use with an ordinary set of playing cards.

The game was devised by John Jaques II, who is also credited with inventing tiddlywinks, ludo and snakes and ladders, and first published before the Great Exhibition of 1851. Cards following Jaques's original designs, with grotesque illustrations possibly by Sir John Tenniel (there was no official credit), are still being made.

Charades: a word guessing. In the form most played today, it is an acting game in which one player acts out a word or phrase, often by pantomiming similar-sounding words, and the other players guess the word or phrase. The idea is to use physical rather than verbal language to convey the meaning to another party.

47. Swy: Australian game of “two up”, involving tossing two pennies in the air and betting on the outcome.  The game involves a small board with indentations to hold the pennies (visible in the last frame episode 77).


54. Oyster tea gown: A tea gown or tea-gown is a woman's at-home dress of the late 19th to mid-20th centuries characterized by unstructured lines, light fabrics, and frothy or feminine detail.




61. Zack: Australian slang for sixpence

68. Duke of Bidford: an allusion to the Duke of Bedford, who opened his stately home Woburn Abbey with a fun fair. Other rich aristocrats of the time took similar measures to pay death duties and to keep their grand houses and estates intact. The most notorious was the Marquess of Bath, who installed a lion park at Longleat.

76. Bunyip: mythical Australian beast.